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 The conquest of Makkah

Islam was now well-settled in the hearts of the Muslims who had, by the time, learned all about it through experience. Allah had also put them to trial to ferret out their minds and motives. On the other hand, the Quraysh of Makkah had prosecuted, persecuted, exiled and battled with the Muslims. In short, they had been guilty of every sin of commission and omission against the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his followers. The Will of Allah now decreed that the Messenger of God (peace be upon him) and his companions (May Allah be pleased with them) should enter the holy city as its conquerors and cleanse it of the defilement of idol worship and deceit as well as lies and wickedness. Allah decided that the sanctity of the sacred city should again be restored to it so that it might again become the center of divine guidance and blessing for all humanity.
God created circumstances through the breach of faith by the Quraysh themselves who unwittingly provided a valid reason or rather made it unavoidable for the Muslims to lay their hands on Makkah
Allahs are the hosts of the heavens and the earth.
[Qur'aan 48:7]
The treaty of Hudaybiyyah gave an option to everyone to enter into alliance with the Prophet of God (peace be upon him) and arrive at a similar agreement with the Quraysh. Accordingly, Banu Bakr preferred to conclude a pact with the Quraysh while Banu Khuzaa entered into an alliance with the Messenger of God (peace be upon him). (Ibn Hisham, Vol. II, p. 390)
Banu Bakr and Banu Khuzaa had a long-standing feud since the pre-Islamic days. With one of these tribes aligning itself with the Muslims and the other with the pagans, their mutual hostility was further intensified. In fact, both tribes had made alliances with the two respective parties with no other consideration except to have their revenge upon the other. After the establishment of the armistice, Banu Bakr tried to take advantage of it against Khuzaa and, in league with certain persons, made a night attack on their enemy when it had taken up quarters at a spring. There was a fight between the two in which Banu Khuzaa lost a number of their men.
The Quraysh helped Banu Bakr with weapons while their chiefs, taking advantage of the night, fought Banu Khuzaa along with Banu Bakr. Their combined charge drove Banu Khuzaa into the sacred territory where some of the Qurayshite said to one another: We are now in the sacred area. Mind your Gods! Mind your Gods! But the others replied imprudently: We have no God today. Take your revenge, O son of Bakr, for you may not get a chance again."(Zad al-Ma'ad, Vol. p. 419 and Ibn Hisham, Vol. II, p. 390)
COMPLAINT TO THE Prophet (peace be upon him)
Amr b. Salim al-Khuzaa went to the Prophet (peace be upon him) in Madinah and informed him how the Quraysh had violated their pledge. He asked the Prophet (peace be upon him) to extend his help by virtue of the treaty of alliance between him and Banu Khuzaa. He swore that the Quraysh had annulled the treaty with the Prophet (peace be upon him) by attacking his allies when they were at their well and had not spared their lives even when they were performing prayers. After listening to his complaint, the Prophet (peace be upon him) replied, You will be helped, O Amr b. Salim.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) then sent a man to Makkah in order to get a confirmation of the affair and also to allow the Quraysh to redress the wrong committed by them. The Prophet (peace be upon him) offered three alternatives before the Quraysh. They should either pay the blood money for the victims of Banu Khuzaa or terminate their alliance with the aggressors belonging to Banu Nifasa or Banu Bakr, but failing these they shall get in return what they had done. The terms were relayed to the Quraysh but in the fit of their pride they replied, Yes, we would prefer measure for measure. The Muslims were thus absolved of their undertaking with the Quraysh and it became incumbent upon them to exact justice for the wrong done to their allies. (39)
When the Prophet (peace be upon him) was informed of the Quraysh reply, he said, I see as if Abu Sufyan has come to you to strengthen the treaty and to ask from me some more time. The events took shape exactly as predicted by the Prophet (peace be upon him). The Quraysh realized the gravity of the situation and felt sorry for the indiscreet reply given by the thoughtless among them. They requested Abu Sufyan to get the treaty ratified and extended once again. (Zad al-Ma'ad, Vol. p. 420 and Ibn Hisham, Vol. II, p. 395-6)
When Abu Sufyan came to the Prophet (peace be upon him) in Madinah, he went into his daughter Umm Habiba (May Allah be pleased with her), a wife of the Prophet (peace be upon him). He wanted to sit on the Prophet s (peace be upon him) bed but she forbade him to do so. Abu Sufyan was puzzled. He said to Umm Habiba (May Allah be pleased with her), Daughter, I cant see if you think that the bed is too good for me or I am too good for the bed! Umm Habiba (May Allah be pleased with her) replied, The fact is that it is the Prophet s bed and you are an unclean polytheist. I do not want you to sit on the Prophet s bed. By God, said Abu Sufyan, You have been spoiled since you left me.
Abu Sufyan went to the Prophet (peace be upon him), but he gave no reply to him. Then he went to Abu Bakr (radiallahu 'anhu) and asked him to speak to the Prophet (peace be upon him) for him, but Abu Bakr (radiallahu 'anhu) refused to do so. He tried to prevail upon Umar, Ali and Fatimah (May Allah be pleased with them) to intervene on his behalf but everyone of them either excused himself/ herself or replied that the matter was too grave to be straightened out by him. Abu Sufyan so lost his nerves that when he went to see Fatimah he said pointing to Hasan b. Ali crawling in her front, O daughter of Muhammad peace be upon him, will you let this child act as a peacemaker between the people so that he may be acknowledged as the lord of Arabia forever? My son is too young, replied Fatimah, to make peace between men. And, nobody can persuade the Prophet to reconcile against his will. Ali saw his perplexity and depression. At last, he said to Abu Sufyan. I do not think that anything can help you now. You are the chief of Banu Kinana, so get up and try to smoothen over and restore harmony and then go back to your home. Abu Sufyan felt certain. He inquired, Do you think it would do any good? By God, I do not, replied Ali, but there is nothing else you can do for now. Abu Sufyan then went to the Prophet s mosque and announced, O Men, I have made peace between you. Thereafter he mounted his dromedary and rode off to Mecca. (Ibn Hisham, Vol. ii, pp. 396-7)
When Abu Sufyan told the Quraysh what had happened, they said, You had brought us a report which is good for naught either to us or to you.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) asked the Muslims to start making preparations for an expedition but also bade to keep it a secret. Later on, the Prophet (peace be upon him) informed the men who intended to go to Makkah and ordered them to get ready for it. He also said, O God, confound the spies and the informers of the Quraysh so that we may take them by surprise in their land. (Zad al-Ma'ad, Vol. p. 421 and Ibn Hisham, Vol. II, p. 397)
The Islamic society at Madinah was, after all, a community composed of the mortals and reflected, like any other social groups, the passions and emotions, hopes and fears of the human beings. Its members were virtuous in behavior but sometimes, they are also prone to mistakes. Occasionally, they consider themselves right and proper in doing something not so regarded by others. They maybe justified or not in holding a certain view, but it is always so with every open and free society sustained not by constraints but by mutual confidence among its members. The Prophet (peace be upon him) never tolerated any wrongful act on the part of his companions, but in such cases, he either offered a plea to vindicate them or excused their mistakes. The Prophet (peace be upon him) was large-hearted enough to pardon the mistakes of others, and in doing so he never lost sight of the hardships undergone by his companions or the sacrifices and services rendered by them for the cause of Islam. That a few instances of such indiscretion or lapses have been preserved by the compilers of hadeeth and life of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the historians of Islam, is in itself an intrinsic evidence of the integrity and truthfulness of these writers.
One of these instances relates to Hatib b. Abi Baltaa (radiallahu 'anhu). He was one of those Muhaajirun who had migrated from Makkah and had taken part in the battle of Badr. It was related that when the Prophet (peace be upon him) informed his companions about his intention to attack Mecca, they quietly started making preparation for it. Hatib b. Abi Baltaa wrote a letter to the Quraysh about the intended attack and gave it to a woman for its delivery to the Quraysh. Hatib also promised to give some money to the woman who set off for Makkah after putting the letter in her head and plaiting her locks over it. The Prophet was informed throught revelation about the action of Hatib. He immediately sent forth Ali and Zubayr in her pursuit, saying, Go until you come to the meadow of Khakh, (40) where you will find a woman travelling on a camel who has a letter which you must recover from her. The two went off racing on their horses until they came to the meadow. And there they found the woman going on her camel. They made her dismount and searched her baggage but found nothing. At last Ali said to her, By God, the Messenger of Allah is not mistaken nor are we. You must bring out the letter or we will search your person. When she saw that they were in earnest, she asked them to turn aside. Then she drew out the letter from her tresses and handed it over to them. The letter, brought back to Prophet (peace be upon him), had been written by Hatib b. Abi Baltaa informing the Quraysh about the departure of the Muslim army. When summoned by the Prophet (peace be upon him), Hatib b. Baltaa said, O Messenger of God, dont be hasty with me. I swear to God I that have faith in Allah and His Prophet , and neither have I abandoned nor changed my faith. I had been attached as an ally to the Quraysh and was not one of them.(41) Other emigrants with you have their relations among the Quraysh who will take care of their families. I though that as I did not have that advantage I should give them some help so that they might protect my relatives. Umar sought the Prophet s (peace be upon him) permission to cut off Hatibs head whom he charged as being a hypocrite, disloyal to God and His Messenger (peace be upon him). But the Prophet (peace be upon him) replied, He was present at Badr. Do you know, Umar, perhaps God has looked favorably on those who were present at Badr? To Hatib he said, Do as you wish for I have forgiven you. Umar dissolved into tears, saying, Allah and His Messenger know better. (Zad al-Ma'ad, Vol. I, p. 421. The Sihah also relate the story)
A cousin of the Prophet (peace be upon him) whose name was Abu Sufyan b. al-Harith (42) happened to meet the Prophet (peace be upon him) along the way. He tried to approach the Prophet but was given a cold shoulder by him. Abu Sufyan had insulted as well as persecuted the Prophet (peace be upon him) in Mecca. Feeling distressed and disconsolate at the indifference of the Prophet (peace be upon him), he approached Ali to pour forth his lamentation. Ali advised him to go back to the Prophet and tell him that the brothers of Yusuf (Prophet Joseph) had said to him
By Allah, verily Allah hath preferred thee above us, and we were indeed sinful.
[Qur'aan 12:91]
For, continued Ali, the Prophet never likes anybody to exceed him in words, kind and comforting. Abu Sufyan did as directed by Ali and got the reply from the Prophet .
Have no fear this day! May Allah forgive you, and He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy.
[Qur'aan 12:92]
Abu Sufyan accepted Islam and was thereafter known for his piety and strength of faith but he was never ashamed of his past misdeeds. He always talked to the Prophet (peace be upon him) with downcast eyes and never dared look into his face.
ABU SUFYAN APPEARS BEFORE THE Prophet (peace be upon him)
Campfires were now lit under the orders of the Prophet (peace be upon him). Abu Sufyan felt aghast as he saw them, and said, I have never seen such fires and such an army before. He came out himself to explore secretly the camp and its people. Abbaas b. Abdul Muttalib had already left Makkah along with his family and joined the Prophet (peace be upon him). He recognized Abu Sufyans voice and called him to say, See, the Prophet is here with his army. What a dreadful morning the Quraysh are going to have! Abbaas then thought that if any Muslim come to know of Abu Sufyan, he would surely be killed. He therefore asked Abu Sufyan to ride at the back of his mule and brought him to the Prophet (peace be upon him). As soon as the Prophet (peace be upon him) saw Abu Sufyan, he said, has not the time yet come, O Abu Sufyan, for you to acknowledge that there is but one God?
My father and mother be your ransom, replied Abu Sufyan. How kind and gentle and noble you are. I think that if there had been another god besides Allah, he would have been of help to me this day. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said again, Woe to you Abu Sufyan, Is it not the time that you acknowledge me as Gods Prophet ?
He answered, My father and mother be your ransom. How kind and clement you are but I have still some doubts as to that.
Abbaas now intervened to say, Abu Sufyan, woe to you, submit and testify that there is no deity but Allah and that Muhammad peace be upon him is the Prophet of God before you lose your head. Abu Sufyan now recited the article of faith and thus he was converted to Islam. ( Ibn Hisham, Vol. II, p. 403: Zad al-Ma'ad, Vol. p. 422)
The merciful Messenger of God (peace be upon him) now forgave the fault of all. It was the widest amnesty ever granted by any conqueror. Now, only he could lay himself open to danger which was bent upon prevailing. The Prophet (peace be upon him) declared: He who enters Abu Sufyans house would be safe, he who shut his door upon himself would be safe and he who enters the sacred mosque would be safe. (Ibn Hisham, Vol. II, p. 409)
Before ordering the troops to enter Mecca, the Prophet (peace be upon him) instructed his men to lift their hands only those who obstructed against their advance or drew swords against them. He also directed them not to lay their hands on any moveable or immovable property of the Meccans or to destroy anything. (Ibn Hisham, Vol. II, p. 409)
Before Abu Sufyan returned, the Prophet (peace be upon him) decided to demonstrate the power of Islam to him. He asked Abbaas to take Abu Sufyan to a place where he could review the marching squadrons.
The army on the move surged like an ocean. Different tribes passed by Abu Sufyan with their tribal colors, and as each marched ahead he asked Abbaas the name of the tribe. And, when he was told about the name of the tribe, he mumbled gloomily. What have I to do with them? Finally the Prophet (peace be upon him) passed with his detachment, with all the troops clad in full armor and appearing greenish-black. It was the regiment of the Ansaar and the Muhaajirun whose eyes alone were visible because of their armor.
Abu Sufyan sighed and asked Abbaas. Good heavens, Abbaas, who are these? When Abbaas told him that they were the Ansaar and Muhaajiroon accompanying the Prophet (peace be upon him), he said. None of them enjoyed this magnificence before. By God, O Abdul Fadl the empire of your nephew has assumed splendid proportions this morning! Abbaas replied, Abu Sufyan, it is the miracle of Prophet hood. Yes, said Abu Sufyan, Thats just it.(43)
Abu Sufyan hurried back to Mecca, assembled the Quraysh and announced to them: O people of the Quraysh, this is Muhammad peace be upon him who has come to you with a force that you cannot resist. Now, he who enters Abu Sufyans house will be safe. God blast you, cried some of the Quraysh, How will your house suffice for us? He added, And who shuts his door upon himself will be safe and he who enters the sacred mosque will be safe. Thereupon, the people dispersed to take shelter in their houses and the mosque.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) entered Makkah with his head lowered in thanks giving to Allah, his beard almost touching the saddle of his dromedary and the Suratul-Fath (44) on his lips, (45) to denote the honor and victory granted to him.
On the day the Prophet (peace be upon him) victoriously entered Mecca, which was the religious and political center or rather the heart of Arabia, he took care to exemplify the principle of justice and equality to man and humility and submission to God, not forgetting even one cardinal virtue upheld by Islam. He seated Usama b. Zayd, the son of his ex-slave, with him on his camel although all the nobles of the Quraysh and of his own family, Bani Hashim, were present on the occasion.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) entered Makkah on Friday, the 21st of Ramadhan.
The day Makkah fell to the Prophet of God (peace be upon him), he happened to talk to a man who began to tremble because of his awe. The Prophet (peace be upon him) consoled him saying, Be at ease and do not be afraid. I am not a king but merely the son of a Qurayshite woman who used to take meat dried under the sun."(46)
Sad b.Ubada passed by Abu Sufyan with a detachment of the Ansaar. While marching ahead he shouted:
Today is a day of conflict, Sanctuary is no more, Allah has humbled the Quraysh.
In a short while, the Prophet s regiment came near Abu Sufyan. He complained to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and repeated what Sad had said. The Prophet (peace be upon him) was displeased with Sads bragging and replied.
Nay, today is the day of mercy and forgiveness. Today will Allah honor the Quraysh, and raise glory of the Sanctuary.(47)
The Prophet (peace be upon him) sent somebody for Sad and taking the emblem from him gave it to his son Qays. It meant as if the standard had not been taken away from him at all. (Zad al-Ma'ad, Vol. I, p. 423)
Whatever the Prophet (peace be upon him) said or did, he was in fact guided from on High. The transfer of the standard was merely symbolic but not superfluous. The Prophet (peace be upon him) set at ease, on the one hand, Abu Sufyan whose feelings had been hurt and, on the other, he avoided doing anything painful to Sad b. Ubada whose services for the cause of Islam were of no mean order.
Safwan b. Umayyah, Ikrima b. Abi Jahj and Suhaly b. Amr came up against Khalid b. Walid and tried to obstruct the advance of the Muslim forces. There were a dozen casualties or so and then they gave in without any further bloodshed. The Prophet (peace be upon him) had already forbidden his troops to use their swords with anyone except upon those who resisted them. (Zad al-Ma'ad, Vol. I, p. 407-8)
Finally, when normalcy returned to Makkah and the populace had settled down, Gods Prophet (peace be upon him) went to the sacred House of God. First he encompassed the sanctuary seven times. The Kabah had at that time three hundred and sixty idols where he prodded each with a bow in his hand, saying:
Truth hath come and falsehood hath vanished away. Lo! Falsehood is ever bound to vanish.
[Qur'aan 17:81]
And the idols collapsed, one after the other, falling on their faces.(48) There were also some images and figures in the Kabah. These were destroyed under the orders of the Prophet (peace be upon him). (49)
Having gone around the sanctuary, the Prophet (peace be upon him) sent somebody for Uthman b. Talha, who was in-charge of the Kabahs keys. He took the keys from Uthman and got the doors opened. Once, before his migration to Madinah, the Prophet (peace be upon him) had requested Uthman to give him the keys of the Kabah, but Uthman had not only refused his request but had also been impertinent to him. With exemplary forbearance, the Prophet (peace be upon him) had then said to him, Uthman, the day will come when you will see this key in my hands. I would then give it to whom I would like.
Uthman had then retorted, If the day comes, the Quraysh would be humiliated and crushed. No, the Prophet had said calmly, it would be honored and secured. It is related that the prediction had so haunted the mind of Uthman that he had come to believe that it would happen exactly as foretold by the Prophet (peace be upon him). (50)
When the Prophet (peace be upon him) came out of the sanctuary he had the keys in his hands. Ali stood up and said, May Allah have mercy and peace on you. Grant us the right of guarding the Kabah along with the watering of pilgrims. But the Prophet (peace be upon him) ignored his request and inquired, Where is Uthman b. Talha? Uthman was summoned and then the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, Uthman, take the keys for these are yours. This is the day of good faith and benevolence. This key shall ever remain with you and none but a tyrant would take it from you.(51)
The Prophet (peace be upon him) stood at the door of the Kabah, holding its frame, while the Quraysh arrayed themselves in front of him in the courtyard. The Prophet (peace be upon him) then addressed them, saying:
There is no God but Allah alone; He has no associate. He has made good His promise and helped His servant. He has alone overthrown all the confederates. Lo! All the privileges and claims to retaliation and bloodwit are beneath my feet except the custody of the Kabah and watering of the pilgrims.
O ye people of the Quraysh, god has abolished the haughtiness of paganism and the pride of lineage. Man springs from Adam and Adam sprang from dust.
Thereafter, the Prophet (peace be upon him) recited the Qur'anic verses:
O mankind! Lo! We have created you male and female, and have made you nations and tribes that ye may know one another. Lo! The noblest of you, in the sight of Allah, is the best in conduct. Lo! Allah is Knower, Aware. (52)
The Prophet (peace be upon him) then asked the Quraysh, O Quraysh, what do you think am I about to do with you?
We hope for the best, They replied, You are a noble brother, son of a noble brother.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said in reply, I say to you what Yusuf (Prophet Joseph) said to his brothers Have no fear this day; (Qur'an 12:92) go your way for you are all free. (53)
Then the Prophet (peace be upon him) ordered Bilal to climb on top of the roof of the Kabah and give the call for prayer. This was the first time that the chiefs and nobles of the Quraysh heard the call to prayer resounding in the valley of Mecca.
Thereafter the Prophet (peace be upon him) went to the house of Umm Hani bint Abi Talib, took a bath and offered eight raakats of prayer as a thanksgiving gesture for the victory that God had granted him. (54)
Fatimah, a woman of Bani Makhzum, was in the meanwhile apprehended on the charge of theft. Her clansmen approached Usama b. Zayd in the hope that the Prophet (peace be upon him), being well disposed towards him, might be able to intercede with him for the woman. When Usama mentioned the matter to the Prophet (peace be upon him), he found his expression completely altered. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said to Usama, Do you speak to me about the bounds put by God? Usama felt so ashamed that he beseeched the Prophet (peace be upon him), O Messenger Allah, pray to God to forgive me. In the evening, when the people convened, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said after praising God.
The people before you were destroyed because they used to overlook when a highborn or man of substances among them committed a theft but when the poor or the weak did the same they chastised him as ordained by the law. I swear by Him who holds my life that if Fatimah bint Muhammad had committed theft I would have amputated her hand.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) ordered to cut off the right hand of the culprit. She is reported to have sincerely repented of her sin and led a normal life after marrying a man. (Bukhari and Muslim)
Now that the victory was complete, all the citizens of Makkah were granted amnesty. Only nine persons were condemned to death. Of these was one who had been guilty of apostasy after accepting Islam, another man had deceitfully killed a Muslim while few others had been busy bringing down Islam and vilifying the Prophet (peace be upon him). Abdullah b. Sad b. Abi Sarah had abandoned Islam. Ikrima b. Abi Jahl so detested Islam that he had fled to Yemen. His wife became Muslim and requested from the Prophet (peace be upon him) to grant him immunity. Ikrima was the son of Abu Jahl, the greatest enemy of the Prophet (peace be upon him), yet he was not only pardoned but when he came back to Makkah the Prophet (peace be upon him) accorded him a warm welcome. The Prophet (peace be upon him) rose to receive Ikrima in such a haste that his robe fell from his shoulders.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) was well pleased to admit Ikrima to the fold of Islam. Accorded a place of honor among the Muslims, Ikrima distinguished himself by his deeds of valor in the battles fought with the Apostates and the Byzantine forces.
One of these culprits was Wahshi, the slave of Jubayr b. Mutim, who killed the Prophet s uncle Hamza (radiallahu 'anhu). The Prophet (peace be upon him) had condemned him to death but when he came to witness the truth in God, the Prophet (peace be upon him) accepted his allegiance.
There was also Habbar b. Al-Aswad who had attacked the Prophet s daughter Zaynab (May Allah be pleased with her). She had fallen from her litter and had an abortion. Habbar had also fled from Makkah but when he came back to accept Islam, the merciful Prophet (peace be upon him) also forgave him. Among those found guilty were two singing girls, Sarah and her friend, who used to sing satirical songs denigrating the Prophet (peace be upon him). When immunity was demanded for them, the Prophet (peace be upon him) granted them impunity from punishment and they acknowledged Islam. (Zad al-Ma'ad, Vol. I, p. 425)
A large crowd of the citizens of Makkah who had embraced Islam assembled. The Prophet (peace be upon him) came to Mount Safa, where one after another, the Meccans moved up to take the oath of allegiance in the hands of the Prophet (peace be upon him).
The men had pledged their faith in Allah and the Prophet (peace be upon him), the women followed suit. Among them came the fury of Uhud, Hind b. Utba, who was the wife of Abu Sufyan. She came veiled because of what she had done to Hamza.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said to her, Take your oath that you would not associate anything with God.
By God, she replied, You lay on us something that you have not laid on men.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said again, And you shall not steal.
Hind acknowledged, I used to take a little of Abu Sufyans money but I do not know if it was lawful or not.
Abu Sufyan was present on the occasion. He intervened to say, In so far as the past is concerned, there is no blame on you. It was lawful. The Prophet (peace be upon him) now recognized Hind and said, Ah! You are Hind bint Utba!
Hind said in reply, Yes, I am, forgive me of my past deeds and God will forgive you.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) again said to her, And, you shall not commit adultery.
Does a woman of noble birth commit adultery? she inquired in reply. (Ibn Kathir, Vol. III, p. 603)
Ignoring her question, the Prophet (peace be upon him) further said, and you shall not kill your children.
Hind answered back, We brought them up when they were young and you killed them when they were grown up. Now you and they should know better.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) asked her again, And you shall not utter slanderous remarks about any body.
By God, replied Hind, Slander is vile and shameful. It is better sometimes to ignore it.
Finally, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said to her, And you shall not disobey me.
Yes, acknowledged Hind, but she added, In matters virtuous. (Ibn Kathir, Vol. III, pp. 602-3)
Allah had opened the gates of Makkah to the Prophet (peace be upon him). It was the city of his birth as well as his ancestral home. Some of the Ansaars prodded one another that since God had given power to the Prophet (peace be upon him) over his homeland and the city, he might now remain there instead of going back to Madinah.
After a short while, the Prophet (peace be upon him) asked them what they were talking about. But nobody would squeal about their conversation. At first they would not tell, but ultimately they expressed regret and told him about the talk. Thereupon the Prophet (peace be upon him) said to them, God forbid, I will live and die with you.
Fadala b. Umayr wanted to kill the Prophet (peace be upon him). He skipped his plan to attack the Prophet when he would be busy in circumambulating the Kabah. When he drew near, the Prophet called out, Fadala to call his attention. He replied, Yes, O Prophet of God. The Prophet (peace be upon him) then asked him, What are you thinking about? Nothing, replied Fadala, I was recollecting God. The Prophet (peace be upon him) smiled and said, Seek forgiveness from God, and at the same time he put his hand on Fadalas chest. His heart was at once set at ease and, as Fadala related later on, The Prophet had not yet removed his hand from my chest that I found him dearer to my heart than every creature of God.
Fadala further says, Then I went back to my house and passed by a woman with whom I used to converse. She asked me to sit down and talk with her, but I replied, No, Allah and Islam do not permit it now. (55)
The Prophet (peace be upon him) sent a few parties to destroy the idols installed in the city of Makkah and around it in the valley. Al of them, including those of Al-Lat and Al-Uzza and Manat-uth-Thalathatal Ukhra were broken into pieces. The Prophet (peace be upon him) then sent a harbinger of news to announce that every man who had faith in God and the hereafter should destroy his household idol. The Prophet (peace be upon him) also delegated some of his companions to the different tribes in the vicinity of Makkah to destroy the idols with them.
Jarir relates that a temple known as Dhul-Khulasah existed during the time when paganism prevailed in Arabia. Similarly, there were two more temples, one of these was al-Kabat-al-Yamaniyah and the other was al-Kabat-as-Shamiyah. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said to Jarir, Why do you not give me rest with Dhul-Khulasah? Jarir promised and went with a hundred fifty resolute horsemen of Ahmas (56) and broke up the temple as well as killed those who were present in it. When Jarir returned and gave the report to the Prophet (peace be upon him), he prayed for the Ahmas. (57)
Thereafter the Prophet (peace be upon him) assembled the Muslims and announced that God has made Makkah a sacred territory forever. He said: It is not lawful for anyone who believes in Allah and the hereafter to shed blood in the city or to cut down a tree. It was not permitted to anyone before me nor shall it be permitted to anyone after me. The Prophet (peace be upon him) returned to Medina. (Zad al-Ma'ad, Vol. Vol. pp. 425-26)
The conquest of Makkah had a tremendous impact on the Arabs. It was a great victory for it vindicated the claim that Islam was the religion of God and paved the way for its reception by the whole of Arabia. Tribesmen from distant deserts started coming to Madinah in batches or sent deputations to give credence to Islam. A number of tribes had treaty relations with the Quraysh which bound them to keep away from the Muslims, while the others feared or respected the Quraysh as the guardians of the holy sanctuary. With the submission of the Quraysh to Allah and His Prophet (peace be upon him), all these obstacles were removed. There were also tribes who believed the fate of Abraha still fresh in their mind that no tyrant could lay his hands upon Makkah and, therefore, they preferred to wait and see the result of the contention between the Muslims and the Quraysh. Some of them had actually decided to let the Prophet (peace be upon him) alone and to accept him as the Prophet of God if he were successful in winning over his own tribe. (Bukhari on the authority of 'Amr b. Salama)
When God allowed His Prophet (peace be upon him) to gain the upper hand over Makkah and the Quraysh yielded obedience to him, willingly or unwillingly, the whole of Arabia bowed its head to Islam in a way unheard of in the country given to disorder and unruliness throughout the ages. The Bedouins had thronged to Madinah, from every clan and tribe, to pay their respects to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and to accept Islam directly from him. It was then that God revealed Surah an-Nasr, (Meaning Succour) which said:
When Allahs succor and the triumph cometh and thou seest mankind entering the religion of Allah in troops.
[Qur'aan 110:1-2]
The Prophet (peace be upon him) appointed Attab b.Usayd to look after the arrangements of the pilgrimage and other affairs of Makkah before leaving the city. (Ibn Hisham, Vol. II, p. 440) Attab was then only twenty years of age. There were several other persons in Mecca, more experienced as well as prominent than Attab, but his selection by the Prophet of God (peace be upon him) showed that he entrusted responsibility to a person solely on the basis of his merit and capability. Attab continued to hold such position throughout the period of Abu Bakrs Caliphate. (Al Isabah and Usad-al-Ghaba)
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